Beginning Beekeeper Resource

Randy Oliver

Randy Oliver

There is probably no other beekeeper alive who has generated more diversity of opinion…if not outright conflict…than Randy Oliver of Scientific Beekeeping.

In his own words:

I started keeping bees as a hobbyist around 1966, and then went on to get university degrees in biological sciences, specializing in entomology.  In 1980 I began to build a migratory beekeeping operation in California, and currently run about 1000 hives with my two sons, from which we make our livings…What I try to do in my articles and blogs is to scour scientific papers for practical beekeeping applications, and to sort through the advice, opinion, and conjecture found in the bee magazines and on the Web, taking no positions other than to provide accurate information to Joe Beekeeper.

Randy is a scientist, and that is nowhere more clear than in reading through his information dense site postings. Mercifully, his writings are simple and clear, easy to understand.

In the face of near insuperable challenges to bee health, the beekeeping world has become increasingly dogmatic. Beekeepers have become iconoclasts, sometimes right, often wrong, and as such make daunting mentors. In the face of dogmatic statements, the question always is: you may be right, but how can you be sure?

The answer there lies in good research technique, and love him or hate him, Randy has that.

For the beginning beekeeper the site is a treasure trove. Begin at the beguin, his first year with your nuc instructions:

http://scientificbeekeeping.com/first-year-care-for-your-nuc/

And follow the embedding links to his pages on Beginners’ Pages.

Bon voyage!

IMG_2221

The Trials of Summer

June 29, 2015

June 29, 2015

It was a golden summer’s evening last night, and the bees were working well past 9:30 at night. It was incredibly warm yesterday, a record 29 degrees C/ 84 degrees F.

I have made a couple of modifications this year, as you can see in the photograph. I now place all the colonies on bases I make myself, which feature cedar 4×4 legs. And I am now using pavers under the base to keep the colony from shifting: insurance against the effects of frost heaves in winter, and issues with increasing hive weight in the summer.

The lowest box is a shallow, a honey super, and an experiment! I call it a Baffle Box. Similar in function to a slatted rack, it gives the hive a kind of vestibule, a bit of extra room at the front door, a place for excess bees to hang out, particularly useful in hot weather when bees must open the cluster and fan to keep cool.

Inside the Baffle Box are crossbars/supports meant to encourage the bees to fill that box with freely drawn wild comb. I have read reports from a few beekeepers who do this, and leave the boxes on for the winter as effective wind baffles. The hive remains ventilated, and the bees pass through the bottom box freely, but the graceful, wavy forms of the free-built comb provide some protection from the elements…not just wind here but the splashing of rain. By spring the sides of the bottom boxes are always marked with mud splashes, and the lower edge of the combs in the bottom box are apt to get a soaking. This should stop that.

The Boardman feeder you see on the doorstep of the hive is not being used as a feeder. Boardman feeders filled with syrup are an invitation to rob! Instead, on the advice of Linda Tillman, I am using the Boardman to provide clean water. Not only do I not want my bees foraging for water in my neighbours’ pools, hot tubs and bird baths, I want to keep them out of the local ditches, which carry runoff from sprayed farm fields. Into the water I add a pinch of agricultural salt. You could also put in some Rooster Booster Electrolytes, à la Lauri Miller. They tell me the bees like that sort of stuff.

I am also using queen excluders over the brood nest for the first time this year. It does mean I can be pretty certain the queen is not going to be in the honey supers, which I move on and off a lot to facilitate another change in practice this year, under-supering the honey boxes. When I need to give the bees more nectar and honey curing room, the new box goes on under the full box(es). Grant Gillard recommends this practice, along with “baiting” the new box with partially filled frames from the nearly full box above, as a method of boosting honey production. Seems to be working!

Finally, you will note there is a deep super on top of the hive. Not my usual practice, and not my preference! But this year’s maple and hawthorn flow seemed much stronger than usual, so in April I was finding full frames of ripening nectar appearing in the brood nest. I plucked these out once the maple was done, and replaced them with heavily waxed frames to encourage expansion of the broodnest. I want egg laying down there, not honey production! And took all the nectar filled frames and put them in one box, over a strong hive, for finishing.

I won’t even try to lift that monster off! I will pull the frames out one by one (standing on a stepladder!) and put them into a handy empty deep super.

PseudoQueen

On the advice of my local bee supplier and mentor, Lindsay Dault of Urban Bee Supply, my final change in practice was using PseudoQueen sticks, photo above, in the hives marked out for honey production. A synthetic slow release queen mandibular pheromone product, PseudoQueen has a number of uses. I wanted to see how well it suppressed the swarming instinct. Early results are promising, although alas the parent company distributing the product is in bankruptcy proceedings.

Good luck to you all in your beekeeping experiments! Post your successes for us in the comments section!

Spring Tonic for Mason Bees

westernwilson:

A thoughtful, beautifully written article focusing on mason bees, but with critical information relating to honey bees as well.

Originally posted on The Bee School:

The relationship between plants and their pollinators is complex, not usually straight forward.  Pollination Syndrome, the method by which plants have managed to attract some pollinators and discourage others is both fascinating and not fully understood.

Pollination is the mechanical transfer of pollen from the male parts of a flower to the female parts of a flower.  Could be the same flower, could also be a flower of a completely unrelated species of plant.  In other words, pollination is pollen moving around, not necessarily resulting in fertilization, even though we use it to mean that.

Why bees are great pollinators and why plants use Pollination Syndrome to encourage some pollinators over others is because bees don’t know how to pollinate.  I know!  Who’d have thunk it?

There is an incredible array of floral structures, colours, scents, pollen types, nectar and nectaries for bees to choose from and figure out.  When…

View original 1,173 more words

What do you need to start a hive?

from Beverly's Bees!

from Beverly’s Bees!

Aside from the bees, what do you need? A bit of equipment for sure!

I can do no better than to point you at the wonderful Beverly’s Bees, which includes a set of very helpful videos:

http://www.beverlybees.com/parts-beehive-beginner-beekeeper/

Other things to consider:

–do you have a place to put the bees out of the way of neighbours and foot traffic?

–you will need a bee suit and veil, smoker, hive tool, benadryl and epipen (and I now also own an astonishing number of Rubbermaid Roughneck 65L tote boxes!)

–get a really good beginning beekeeping book or two; my favourite is the British Beekeeping Association’s Guide to Beekeeping

index

Art & Science: How to Paint Your Beehives

Bee-Hives-August-2010-618x264Every beeyard, large or small, starts at the workbench. Beekeepers generally like the whole process of assembling their equipment, and spend a lot of time sourcing well made parts, putting in the extra time and expense it takes to make bee boxes and frames robust and durable. There are few pleasures equal to puttering happily in the garage, hammering together next summer’s equipment, dreaming of the season to come while snowflakes drift past the window…

But painting? Can you hear a collective groan at the thought?

And the topic gets far less respect than it deserves. My first outyard was a small, blackberry choked field tucked in the back of a boarding stable operation. The owners wanted honey to sell at the farm gate, and I needed a secluded spot for bees. The one obstacle to our mutual success was the attitude of the horse owners, who were rightly concerned at the proximity of their beloved mounts to my beloved bees. Aware that we had to do a bit of PR to get the ladies on side, I deliberately chose Easter egg paint colours, bought a few stencils, and made the hives exceptionally pretty. I hewed the blackberries back to the fencelines, and planted a meditation walk in the design of a spoked wheel, a bee hive at every outside spoke intersection and a giant Joe Pye Weed at the centre of all. The beds were filled with flowers, we placed some chairs and a comfy bench, and waited. The ladies loved it. The pastel hives were sweet and inviting, not frightening. The benches and chairs got lots of use. One lady even weeded for me, enjoying the flowers and the retreat-like feel of the beeyard. There were no anxious inquiries about bees stinging horses. The PR worked.

Just cleared and newly planted!

Just cleared and newly planted!

A bit later in the yeare, and a bit higgeldy-piggeldy!

A bit later in the year, and a bit higgeldy-piggeldy! The cleome was over 6’…

I got loud guffaws from fellow beekeepers at the local club, where tradition dictated the thrifty practice of buying mis-tints at a deep discount and painting hives…what-ev-errr.

Usually dull, military greens, muddy orange-browns, and sundry other dirty, dark colours. A quilter, a lover of colour, I found these combinations dispiriting.

Worse, I felt they said something unfortunate: that bees were not deserving of our attention, respect, or engagement.

Paint is expensive, but I had no desire to work in an ugly beeyard.

When a neighbour reacted badly to a midsummer swarm, I decided to paint the home hives over again, leaving the pastels behind and embracing a modern, sophisticated colour scheme that blended nicely into the shrubberies. Camouflage of a different sort! (click on palettes to see enlarged version)

How to hide bees in an urban garden!

How to hide bees in an urban garden!

*

*

And in a local community garden, we reworked that urban palette but included a warm, creamy yellow to remind visitors of the treasure being stored up in the hives: glorious wildflower honey.

Benjamin Moore Honeywheat

Benjamin Moore Honeywheat

* *

I have used Benjamin Moore paints and colour schemes because they have a very user friendly website that suggests colour combinations for you. And their colour range is extremely wide, with something for everyone! Here are a few combinations that work very nicely in the beeyard, from subtle to colourful:

Guilford Green, the Color of the Year for 2015, paired with Shadow Grey and Aloe Vera.

Guilford Green, the Color of the Year for 2015, paired with Shadow Grey and Aloe Vera.

* *

A fresh and elegant palette, Spring Purple paired with Swept Away and White Christmas.

A fresh and elegant palette, Spring Purple paired with Swept Away and White Christmas.

* *

A bolder purple, Mystical Grape with Veranda View and Ice Mist.

A bolder purple, Mystical Grape with Veranda View and Ice Mist.

* *

Who can resist Bumble Bee Yellow?! With Stampede and Silver Sage.

Who can resist Bumble Bee Yellow?! With Stampede and Silver Sage.

* *

A little citrusy zing: Oriole with Mascarpone and Pear Green.

A little citrusy zing: Oriole with Mascarpone and Pear Green.

* *

A warmer urban palette...Early Morning with Cream Silk and Wilmington Tan.

A warmer urban palette…Early Morning with Cream Silk and Wilmington Tan.

* *

Honeywheat and a quiet blue, Denim Wash and Gardenia.

Honeywheat and a quiet blue, Denim Wash and Gardenia.

* *

Another variation on the Honeywheat theme, here with the greener Montpelier and White Christmas.

Another variation on the Honeywheat theme, here with the greener Montpelier and White Christmas.

* *

So, there is the fun part of painting! Lately I have been using Alpine White (nice, creamy white, easier on the eyes in sunshine than a bright white), Blue Viola (periwinkle blue being my favourite colour) and Gray Horse, with a bit of Honeywheat thrown in.

Alpine White

Alpine White

Blue Viola

Blue Viola

Gray Horse

Gray Horse

Honeywheat (how appropriate!)

Honeywheat
(how appropriate!)

The finished product.

The finished product.

I make sure that no two hives in a beeyard have the same colour mix of boxes…if one hive has a white lower super, the next one has a blue one, etc., making it less likely the bees will drift. If I get time this winter I will stencil a lighter shade of thick yellow onto the Honeywheat boxes to suggest the cell design in the combs…that idea will go over very nicely in the community garden, both with visitors, honey customers and the school groups we have touring through.

The pleasing colour schemes engage those who are strangers to and afraid of bees: we have found that, as in cookery, presentation makes a real difference to consumer attitude! Anxiety in the beeyard is, I am certain, much reduced when it looks like a great place to “bee”.

And that extra touch gives the beekeeper an extra dimension of pleasure!

Given our chilly Pacific Northwest summers, we site our hives in full sunlight: on the days it actually feels like summer, any dark paints will severely overheat the hive. Mid tones and lights are a better bet…in most hives it is easier for the bees to cluster and stay warm than to ventilate and stay cool.

I put two coats of exterior latex in either satin or semi-gloss onto the boxes, brushing the handle area first then rolling with a 4″ roller the rest of the box surface.

Painting boxes is much, much easier if you set up a 2 x 4 board to hang them on as you paint. I sandwich my board into the jaws of my Workmate bench, hang the boxes off either end (up to 8 at a time) and paint on the grass so that drips don’t matter. You rotate the boxes as you finish each side, and if you don’t have a Workmate setup, you can hang your 2 x 4 between supports.

paint line setup

So much for Art, here comes the Science.

Once the boxes are done and dry, I take a wallpaper stripping tool and rough up the INTERIOR of the boxes.

Recent research from the Beaver Lodge facility indicates that if given a rough lumber interior, bees will propolize the walls of their hives, as they do in nature in hollow trees. This cuts down on disease transference (particularly as in the wild they propolize all around their doorway…a bit hard to do in a Langstroth, but you can smear propolis along the landing board so the bees must walk across it).

To roughen the interior of purchased bee boxes, which alas are made smooth on both sides (stop that!), a wallpaper stripping tool is the bomb:

Idea courtesy of Michael Jaross, Mount Baker Beekeeping Club!

Idea courtesy of Michael Jaross, Mount Baker Beekeeping Club!

Note the little wheels of teeth; they do a great job of roughing up the interior of your bee boxes. Pay special attention to the areas near to where bees will enter. If you are in high density bee areas, as I am, any edge you can get in lowering your exposure to AFB/EFB and other diseases is welcome. Hoping you will all post colour ideas of your own.

On Your Marks…

Blackberry buds, May 11, 2015, Richmond, BC

Blackberry buds, May 11, 2015, Richmond, BC

I see the blackberry buds began to set this weekend in the Vancouver, BC, Canada area.

Heads up: we have had an incredibly warm spring, with the perfect mix of rain and sun. The long range forecast for our area is calling for more mixed sun and rain, with two weeks of hot sunshine at the end of May and the beginning of (our usually cold and wet) June.

All signs then, are pointing to an early and copious nectar flow. Get the honey supers on and the bottling line ready!

As if that were not enough bounty, the spring maple and hawthorn flow was unusually high in my area as well. Brood nests plugged up early and unexpectedly with nectar and honey, so I am busy swapping out honey filled deep frames in the broodnest for drawn comb and waxed plastic foundation. Got caught by surprise!

Rethinking the Honey Math

from the "Counting Bees" computer game!

from the “Counting Bees” computer game!

In early 2014 I wrote a post on honey math, and the numbers involved in meeting the dominant nectar flow in our area, which is blackberry bloom, roughly June 15 in average years.

Putting aside the fact that, alas, 2014 was anything but an average year (with endless sun but complete drought in which the blackberries bloomed 2 weeks early, over a shortened bloom period, with little nectar), I was not happy at all with my honey math.

After a wonderful spring build up, hives were putting up queen cells quite early and in big numbers. I hoped that taking the queen cells out in small splits would allow the mother hive to continue to build well toward the nectar flow. But it didn’t work out that way. While some did better than others, I found the spring splits failed to build well, and in general, their making sapped the mother hive of essential momentum.

,Nucs in March from emgoldbeekeepers.com

,Nucs in March from emgoldbeekeepers.com

Why?

Lots of reasons.

But the biggest? I made a fundamental error in computing my honey math, which was based on the simple idea that at any one time, the maximum hive population can only be the total that results from “eggs laid per day” x “average lifetime of bees in the hive”. For the purpose of the thought experiment, I used a healthy lay rate of 1500 eggs per day and a worker lifetime of 4-6 weeks. That gives us a maximum colony population of between 42,000 and 63,000 bees at any one time.

To meet the nectar flow on June 15 with a maximum number of foragers and maximum hive population to support those foragers, the queen needs to have been laying (and the hive successfully raising) 1500 eggs a day for 4-6 weeks plus the incubation time of a worker bee egg, which is 21 days, or another three weeks on top of the 4-6. And the youngest possible foragers are going to be 43 days old = 6 weeks.

What I failed to factor in was the ability of the colony to:

1. have a queen at peak lay rate 6-9 weeks before the nectar flow

2. have a population capable of keeping the resulting brood warm, fed and growing

Six weeks before June 15 is May 1st. Nine weeks before June 15 is April 15. The weather here in April is variable! It is often still quite chilly and rainy. There won’t be much food out there even on the sunny days (although Red Alders and Big Leaf Maples are going to be starting to bloom). The colony will be expending lots of energy on the simple task of keeping warm, and will have reduced ability to feed well.

If you are starting with a package on March 15, you will have a very different experience than starting with a nuc, even if bee populations are equal. That package must draw comb before the queen can lay, and then once she does begin to lay, there will be a 21 day stall in the population…indeed a fall in the population as older bees in the package pass away…until it can begin building, as is the way of the bee. But the nucleus colony already has brood coming along, as much as it can manage. And while the package is waiting for the new bees to hatch, the nucleus colony is hatching out brood from day 1. The queen may not be at peak laying rate in the nucleus colony, simply because her rate of lay is limited by how much area is available, how much area the bees can keep warm, and how many larvae they can keep fed. But even if she is laying a pallid 250 a day, that nucleus colony is going to arrive at the 21 day mark with 5250 more bees than the package will.

And an overwintered colony will be just that much larger (we hope) than a nucleus colony, and HRH is probably capable of laying at peak rates IF the larvae can be fed. At even 1000 eggs per day, that’s 21,000 more bees than the package will make in the 21 days from March 15, and nearly 15,000 more than the nuc. Ahem.

So my first re-think of the Honey Math is that feeding colonies in early spring, to ensure they always have abundant food with which to keep warm and raise optimal brood, is essential. Overwintered colonies are going to hit the ground running, and I can help them by making sure the queen has lots of room to lay, in spite of the syrup feed coming in. The better care they can take of the queen and their larval sisters, the better my chances of fielding big, strong hives for the nectar flow.

from beemaniacs.com

from beemaniacs.com

daintytime ~ Sherri Lynn Wood

modern quilts, improvisation, art & social practice

WOMBAT QUILTS

An Aussie's adventures in quilting

The Bee School

Brian Campbell's Blessed Bee Apiary and Bee School

Shady Character

A nature, gardening and food enthusiast externalizing the internal monologue

The Inbox Jaunt

Quilts. Photography. Family.

standingoutinmyfield

The nature of a punny field biologist.

Brookfield Farm Bees & Honey Blog

musings on bees, life, & nature near Mt. Baker Washington

Batel’s Bee Blog

The story of a young beekeeper's experiences in Western Washington

Ivory Spring

where treasures of past and present connect

Romancing the Bee

Beautiful Beekeeping, English Cottage Gardening, and Cooking with Honey

Scientific Beekeeping

All things honeybee

Hives for Humanity

All things honeybee

Linda's Bees

All things honeybee

Green Antilles

Green Antilles is a weblog about green topics in the Caribbean region.

Adventuresinbeeland's Blog

My beekeeping bumbles

Honey Bee Suite

A Better Way to Bee

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 27 other followers